Belief in Allah

There is nothing similar to Allah

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ (Quran Ash-Shura:11) Meaning: "Naught is as His likeness"

It is forbidden for us to imagine Allah to have body parts e.g. having hands or to imagine Allah to do actions similar to His creations e.g. sitting. We can know Allah through His attributes. There are many attributes of Allah. Some of the attributes are listed below.

It is obligatory upon every legally responsible person to know what the mandatory, inconceivable and conceivable attributes of Allah.

The Mandatory Attributes (sifat) of Allah

Among the mandatory attributes of Allah are as below. 

  1. Wujud ﻭﺟﻮﺩ
    • Existence: It is obligatory to believe in the Existence of Allah
    • أَفِي اللَّهِ شَكٌّ (Surah Ibrahim verse 10)
    • ٱللَّهُ خَـٰلِقُ ڪُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۖ (Surah al-Zumar:62)
    • Indeed Allah is the Creator of ever maker and his craft (Hadith)
  2. Qidam ﻗﺪﻡ
    • Eternity: It is obligatory to believe Allah is Eternal, i.e., there is no beginning to His Existence. His Attributes are also eternal. Nothing is eternal except Allah and His Attributes.
    • هو الأول (Surah Al-Hadid verse 3)
    • O Allah! You are the First; there is nothing before You (Hadith)
  3. Baqa' ﺑﻘﺎﺀ
    • Everlastingness: It is obligatory to believe Allah is Everlasting, i.e., His Existence does not end. His Existence is everlasting and His Attributes are everlasting. There is nothing everlasting by itself except Allah, because annihilation does not apply to His Self. However, Paradise and Hell are everlasting because Allah willed their everlastingness. Hence, they are everlasting, not by themselves, but because of other than their selves. This is why they are among the intellectual possibilities, and they are part of this universe. 
    • هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ (Surah Al-Hadid verse 3)
    • وَيَبۡقَىٰ وَجۡهُ رَبِّكَ (Surah al-Rahman verse 27)
    • O Allah! You are the Last; there is nothing after You... (Hadith)
  4. Mukhalafatuhu lilhawadith ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﻮﺍﺩﺙ
    • Non-Resemblance to the Creation: Allah does not resemble any of His creations, either in His Self, His Attributes, or His Doings
    • لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ (Surah Ash-shura verse 11)
  5. Qiamuhu binafsih ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻪ تعال ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ
    • Non-neediness of Others
    • اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ (Qurah 112:2)
  6. Wahdaniah ﻭﺣﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ
    • Oneness: It is obligatory to believe that Allah is One without a partner. 
    • فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ (Quran 47:19)
    • Indeed Allah is Single (Witr) and He loves that which is single (Hadith)
  7. Qudrah ﻗﺪﺭﺓ
    • Power: It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Power. It is defined as an eternal and everlasting Attribute of Allah, with which Allah gives existence to or annihilates what is intellectually possible. 
    • إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (Quran 2:20)
  8. Iradah ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ
    • Will: It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Will. It is defined as an eternal and everlasting Attribute, with which Allah specifies the creations (who are intellectual possibilities) with some of the attributes which are possible for them to have. An example is specifying eyes with green color instead of other possible colors. There is no difference in that regard between good and evil, belief and blasphemy, winning and losing, and other opposites among what is intellectually possible.
    • وَمَا تَشَاءُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ (Quran 81:29)
  9. Ilm ﻋﻠﻢ
    • Knowledge: It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Knowledge. This is an eternal and everlasting Attribute of His Self. Allah knew eternally about His Self, Attributes, and His creations. Nothing is beyond His Knowledge.
    • وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (Quran 2:282)
  10. Hayat ﺣﻴﺎﺓ
    • Life: It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Life
    • اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ (Quran 2:255)
  11. Sama' ﺳﻤﻊ
    • Hearing: It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Hearing. This is an eternal and everlasting Attribute of Allah with which Allah hears all hearable things. He hears them whether they are near to us or far from us, because Allah is not in a place. He hears without an ear, without means, and without instruments. His hearing is not subject to weakening or change, because weakness and change are non-befitting to Allah. 
    • وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ (Quran 42:11)
  12. Basar ﺑﺼﺮ
    •  Sight: It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Sight. This is an eternal and everlasting Attribute of Allah with which He sees all things that are seeable, without an instrument and without means. He sees the things that are far away from us and those that are near to us without any difference, because Allah is not in a place. His Attribute of Sight does not change or develop, because the One whose Self is eternal does not develop or change. Allah's Attributes are eternal and do not develop or change. 
    • إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ (Quran 40:20)
  13. Kalam ﻛﻼﻢ
    • Speech: It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Speech (Kalam). This is an eternal and everlasting Attribute, with which Allah orders, forbids, and informs. It is not a letter, a sound, or a language. The Qur'an and the other revealed Books are expressions of the eternal Kalam of the Self of Allah. When we write the word "Allah", it is an expression of the Self of Allah. Likewise, the words and sentences of the revealed Books are expressions of the Kalam of Allah. The Qur'an is called the Kalam of Allah because it is not authored by Prophet Muhammad or Angel Jibril. The Qur'an is also used to mean the eternal Kalam of the Self of Allah. 
    • وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا (Quran 4:164)
  14. Kaunuhu qaadiran ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ
    • He the Most Exalted being Powerful
  15. Kaunuhu muriidan ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﻳﺪﺍ
    • He the Exalted being free chooser
  16. Kaunuhu 'aliman ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﺎ
    • He the Most Exalted being all-knowing
  17. Kaunuhu hayyan ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺣﻴﺎ
    • He the Most Exalted being alive
  18. Kaunuhu sami'an ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﻤﻴﻌﺎ
    • He the Most Exalted being all-hearing
  19. Kaunuhu basiiran ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺼﻴﺭﺍ
    • He the Most Exalted being the all-seeing
  20. Kaunuhu mutakalliman ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻜﻠﻤﺎ
    • He the Most Exalted being all-speaking

 

Attribute number 1 above is self-signifying attribute (sifat nafsiyyah).
Attributes 2 to 6 above are negating attributes (sifat salbiyyah).
Attributes 7 to 13 above are qualitative attributes (sifat ma'ani).
Attributes 14 to 20 above are predicative attributes (sifat ma'nawiyyah).

 

 

 

 

 

Inconceivable Atrributes of Allah

Among the attributes that are impossible to be true of Allāh are 20 attributes that are the opposites of the 20 mentioned above, including:

  1. Non-existence
  2. Being an event i.e. having a beginning
  3. Having an end
  4. Similarity to events
  5. It is also impossible that Allāh should not beself-existent
  6. It is also impossible that Allāh not be One
  7. It is also impossible that Allāh should be unable to bring into existence any event which has the possibility of existence
  8. to give existence to anything which He had not willed for, out of negligence, inattention, illness, or by cause or nature
  9. It is also impossible that Allāh should be characterized by ignorance, or lack of knowledge of any matter
  10. Death
  11. Deafness
  12. Blindness
  13. Lack of Speech

The last 7 are the opposites of the last 7 of the Mandatory Atrributes

Conceivable Attributes of Allah

99 Names of Allah

  1. Ar Rahman (الرحمٰن) The Most Gracious
  2. Ar Raheem (الرحيم) The Most Merciful
  3. Al Malik (الملك) The King
  4. Al Quddus (القدوس) The Most Holy
  5. As Salam (السلام) The Ultimate Provider of Peace
  6. Al Mu'min (المؤمن) The Guarant Blessing
  7. Al Muhaymin (المهيمن) The Guardian, the Preserver
  8. Al Aziz (العزيز) The Almighty, the Self Sufficient
  9. Al Jabbaar (الجبار) The Powerful ,
  10. Al Mutakabbir (المتكبر) The Greatest
  11. Al Khaaliq (الخالق) The Creator
  12. Al Baari (البارئ) The Maker
  13. Al Musawwir (المصور) The Fashioner of Forms
  14. Al Ghaffaar (الغفار) The Ever-Forgiving
  15. Al Qahhaar (القهار) The All Subduer
  16. Al Wahhaab(الوهاب) The Bestower
  17. Ar Razzaaq (الرزاق) The Ever-Providing,The Sustainer
  18. Al Fattaah(الفتاح) The Ultimate Judge, The Opener of All Portals, the Victory Giver
  19. Al Alim (العليم) The All-Knowing, the Omniscient
  20. Al Qaabid (القابض) The Restrainer, the Straightener
  21. Al Baasit (الباسط) The Expander, the Munificent
  22. Al Khaafid (الخافض) The Abaser, The Demeanor
  23. Ar Raafi' (الرافع) The Exalter
  24. Al Mu'izz (المعز) The Giver of Honor
  25. Al Muzil (المذل) The Humiliator
  26. As Sami/Al Sami' (السميع) The All-Hearing
  27. Al Basir (البصير) The All-Seeing
  28. Al Hakam (الحكم) The Judge, the Ultimate Arbiter
  29. Al 'Adl (العدل) The Utterly Just
  30. Al Latif (اللطيف) The Kind
  31. Al Khabir (الخبير) The All-Aware
  32. Al Halim (الحليم) The Forbearer, The Indulgent
  33. Al 'Azim (العظيم) The Magnificent, the Infinite
  34. Al Ghafur (الغفور) The All-Forgiving
  35. Ash Shakur (الشكور) The Grateful
  36. Al Ali (العلي) The Sublimely Exalted
  37. Al Kabir (الكبير) The Great
  38. Al Hafiz (الحفيظ) The Preserver, The Protector
  39. Al Muqit (المقيت) The Nourisher
  40. Al Hasib (الحسيب) The Reckoner
  41. Al Jalil (الجليل) The Majestic
  42. Al Karim (الكريم) The Bountiful, the Generous
  43. Ar Raqib (الرقيب) The Watchful
  44. Al Mujib (المجيب) The Responsive, the Answerer
  45. Al Wasi' (الواسع) The Vast, the All Encompassing
  46. Al Hakim (الحكيم) The Wise
  47. Al Wadud (الودود) The Loving, the Kind One
  48. Al Majid (المجيد) The All Glorious
  49. Al Ba'ith (الباعث) The Raiser of the Dead
  50. Ash Shahid (الشهيد) The Witness
  51. Al Haqq (الحق) The Truth, the Real
  52. Al Wakil (الوكيل) The Trustee, the Dependable
  53. Al Qawiyy (القوي) The Strong
  54. Al Matin (المتين) The Firm, the Steadfast
  55. Al Wali (الولي) The Protecting Friend, Patron, and Supporter
  56. Al Hamid (الحميد) The All Praiseworthy
  57. Al Muhsi (المحصي) The Accounter, The Numberer of All
  58. Al Mubdi (المبدئ) The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of all
  59. Al Mu'id (المعيد) The Reinstater Who Brings Back All
  60. Al Muhyi (المحيي) The Giver of Life
  61. Al Mumit (المميت) The Bringer of Death, the Destroyer
  62. Al Hayy (الحي) The Ever Living
  63. Al Qayyum (القيوم) The Self Subsisting Sustainer of All
  64. Al Waajid (الواجد) The Perceiver, the Finder, the Unfailing
  65. Al Maajid (الماجد) The Illustrious, the Magnificent
  66. Al Waahid (الواحد) The One, the All Inclusive, the Indivisible
  67. Al Ahad (الاحد) The One, the Indivisible
  68. As Samad (الصمد) The Everlasting,The Eternal Refuge
  69. Al Qaadir (القادر) The All-Capable,  The Most Able,  The Most Powerful
  70. Al Muqtadir (المقتدر) The All Determiner, the Dominant
  71. Al Muqaddim (المقدم) The Expediter, He who brings forward
  72. Al Mu'akhkhir (المؤخر) The Delayer, He who brings backwards
  73. Al Awwal (الأول) The First
  74. Al Aakhir (الآخر) The Last
  75. Az Zaahir (الظاهر) The Manifest; the All Victorious
  76. Al Baatin (الباطن) The Hidden; the All Encompassing
  77. Al Waali (الوالي) The Patron
  78. Al Muta'ali (المتعالي) The Self Exalted
  79. Al Barr (البر) The Most Kind and Righteous
  80. At Tawwaab (التواب) The Ever-Pardoning, Ever Relenting
  81. Al Muntaqim (المنتقم) The Avenger
  82. Al 'Afuww (العفو) The Pardoner, The Forgiver
  83. Ar Ra'uf (الرؤوف) The Clement, The Compassionate, The All-Pitying
  84. Malik al Mulk (مالك الملك) The Owner of All Sovereignty
  85. Dhu al Jalal wa al Ikram (ذو الجلال و الإكرام) The Lord of Majesty and Generosity
  86. Al Muqsit (المقسط) The Equitable, the Requiter
  87. Al Jaami' (الجامع) The Gatherer, the Unifier
  88. Al Ghani (الغني) The All Rich, the Independent
  89. Al Mughni (المغني) The Enricher, the Emancipator
  90. Al Mani' (المانع) The Withholder, the Shielder, the Defender
  91. Ad Dharr (الضآر) The Distresser
  92. An Nafi' (النافع) The Propitious, the Benefactor
  93. An Nur (النور) The Light
  94. Al Hadi (الهادي) The Guide
  95. Al Badi (البديع) Incomparable, the Originator
  96. Al Baaqi (الباقي) The Ever Enduring and Immutable
  97. Al Waarith (الوارث) The Heir, the Inheritor of All
  98. Ar Rashid (الرشيد) The Guide, Infallible Teacher, and Knower
  99. Al Saboor (الصبور) The Forbearing, The Patient
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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