Obligatory prayers

  1. Subh
  2. Zuhr
  3. Asr
  4. Maghrib
  5. Isha'

2.1 The Times of Prescribed Prayers



2.2 Conditions Obligating Prayer


2.2.1 Recommended Prayers

 Nafl has the same meaning as sunnah, mandub and mustahab.

Sunnah prayers are divided into

  1. sunnah prayers that are not recommended to be done in congregation
    • prayers that are associated with obligatory prayers
      • sunnah that are muakkad
        • 2 rakaat before subh
        • 2 rakaat before zuhr
        • 2 rakaat after zuhr
        • 2 rakaat after maghrib
        • 2 rakaat after isha'
      • sunnah that are not muakkad
        • 2 rakaat before zuhr, in addition to the muakkad prayer
        • 2 rakaat after zuhr, in addition to the muakkad prayer
        • 2 + 2 rakaat before asr
        • 2 rakaat before maghrib
        • 2 rakaat before isha
    • prayers that are not associated with obligatory prayers
      • tahiyyatul masjid
      • witr
      • qiyamullail (called tahajjud if after sleep)
      • dhuha
      • istikharah
      • sunnah mutlaq (sunnah prayers without any name)
  2. sunnah prayers that are done in congregation
    • both eid prayers
    • tarawih
    • solar eclipse
    • lunar eclipse
    • istisqa' (asking for rain)


2.3 Performing Prayers


2.3.1 Prerequisites


Conditions for prayer to be valid

  1. Purity
    • free from hadath
    • free from najis
    • clothes are free from najis
    • place is free from najis
  2. Knowing it is within the period for the prayer
  3. Clothing the nakedness (awrah)
    • Awrah for man is from navel to knees
    • Awrah for woman is all except the face and hands
  4. Facing the qiiblat



2.3.2 Integrals


Mandatory integrals (rukun) for prayers

  1. Intention
  2. Standing up for those who are able
  3. Takbiratul ihram. Saying Allahu akbar
  4. Reciting surah al-Fatihah. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ is part of al-Fatihah
  5. Ruku' (bowing)
  6. I'tidal (rising from ruku')
  7. Sujud twice in every rakaat
  8. Sitting between two sujuds
  9. Final sitting
  10. Reciting tashahhud in the final sitting
    • Tahiyyat awwal:
       اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ِللهِ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ اَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَىعِبَادِاللهِ الصَّالِحِيْنَ أَشْهَدُ اَنْ لآ إِلَهَ إِلاَّاللهُ وَاَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُوْلُ اللهُ
    • Tahiyyat akhir:
       اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ِللهِ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ اَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَىعِبَادِاللهِ الصَّالِحِيْنَ، أَشْهَدُ اَنْ لآ إِلَهَ إِلاَّاللهُ وَاَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُوْلُ اللهُ، اَللهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا اِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا اِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَبَارِكْ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِسَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَرَكْتَ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا اِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا اِبْرَاهِيْمَ فِى الْعَالَمِيْنَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَجِيْدٌ    
  11. Salawat on the Prophet p.b.u.h. (see tahiyyat akhir above)
  12. First salam
  13. Doing in the sequence of the above
  14. Tama'ninah (pause between movements)






2.3.3 Recommended Actions


Recommended acts (sunnah) during prayers

This is divided into 2 categories:

1. Sunnah ab'ad. If the acts were not done, they the forgetfulness prostration (sujud sahw) can be performed

a. First tashahhud

b. Salawat upon the Prophet pbuh after the first tashahhud

c. Sitting to recite the first tashahhud

d. Salawat upon the Prophet pbuh on the final tashahhud (mandatory integral)

e. Reciting qunut after i'tidal in the second rakaat of subh prayer or the last rakaat of witr prayer in the second half of Ramadan

اَللّهُمَّ اهْدِنِىْ فِيْمَنْ هَدَيْتَ 

وَعَافِنِى فِيْمَنْ عَافَيْتَ 

وَتَوَلَّنِىْ فِيْمَنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ 

وَبَارِكْ لِىْ فِيْمَا اَعْطَيْتَ 

وَقِنِيْ شَرَّمَا قََضَيْتَ

فَاِ نَّكَ تَقْضِىْ وَلاَ يُقْضَى عَلَيْكَ 

وَاِ نَّهُ لاَ يَذِلُّ مَنْ وَالَيْتَ 

وَلاَ يَعِزُّ مَنْ عَادَيْتَ 

تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَتَعَالَيْتَ 

فَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ عَلَى مَا قَضَيْتَ 

وَاَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَاَتُوْبُ اِلَيْكَ 

وَصَلَّى اللهُ عَلَى سَيِّدَنَا مُحَمَّدٍ النَّبِيِّ اْلاُمِّيِّ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ وَسَلَّمَ


2. Sunnah hai'at. See section 2.3.4 Lesser Recommended Actions below

 Offensive (makruh) acts during prayers

  1. To turn the head for no valid reason
  2. Looking upwards
  3. To gather clothes or hair with the hand
  4. Praying when food have been served and thinking about the food
  5. Praying while there is a need to go to urinate or defaecate
  6. Praying when too sleepy

 2.3.4 Lesser Recommended Actions

 Sunnah hai'at. If the acts were not done, it is not necessary to perform the forgetfulness prostration

a. Raising the hands during takbiratul ihram

b. Putting the right hand over the left hand whilst standing

c. Look at the spot for prostration

d. To recite du'a iftitah

اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ كَبِيْرًا وَالْحَمْدُ ِللهِ كَثِيْرًا وَسُبْحَانَ اللهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيْلاً. وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِيْ فَطَرَالسَّمَاوَاتِ وَاْلأَرْضَ حَنِيْفًا مُسْلِمًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ. إِنَّ صَلاَتِيْ وَنُسُكِيْ وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِيْ ِللهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ. لاَشَرِيْكَ لَهُ وَبِذلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ 

e. To recite al-isti'azah  أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم after du'a iftitah

f. Recite aloud at appropriate instances

i. both rakaat of subh prayer

ii. first 2 rakaats of maghrib and isha' prayers

iii. Friday prayer

iv. Both eid prayers

v. Lunar eclipse prayer

vi. Prayer to ask for rain

vii. Tarawih and witr prayers during Ramadan

g. To say "amin" at the end of surah al-Fatihah

h. To recite verses of Quran after al-Fatihah (only on first 2 rakaats)

i. Saying the takbir before doing the next mandatory integral (rukun)

j. Recite the tasbih during bowing and prostration

tasbih during bowing: سُبْحَانَ رَبِّىَ الْعَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِه

tasbih during prostration: سُبْحَانَ رَبِّىَ الأَعْلَى وَبِحَمْدِه

k. Placing both hands on the thighs during sitting for first and last tashahhud

l. Sitting tawarruk during the last tashahhud and sitting iftirash at other sittings

tawarruk: sitting on the left buttock, right foot upright and left foot under right leg

iftirash: sitting on the left ankle, right foot upright

m. Recite salawat Ibrahimiyah after the final tashahhud

n. Second salam

o. Focus during prayer


2.3.5 Men and Women During Prayer


Male prayer


Female prayer


2.3.6 Invalidators


Nullification of prayer

  1. Speaking
  2. Excessive movement e.g. movement of arms 3 times in a row
  3. Najis on body or clothes
  4. Uncovering of the nakedness (awrah)
  5. Eating and drinking
  6. Entering the state of Hadath before the first salam
  7. Obvious laughing, crying, moaning
  8. Intention to stop the prayer
  9. Facing the opposite of qiblah


2.3.7 Quantity of Prayer Elements


2.3.8 Inability


2.3.9 Forgetfulness During Prayer


Forgetfulness prostration (sujud sahw)

A sunnah prostration to "repair" a prayer. The prayer is still valid if the prostration is not done. This is done by having intention of doing forgetfulness prostration followed by performing two prostrations at the end of the prayer before the salam.

Reasons for forgetfulness prostration

  1. Leaving out the sunnah ab'ad
  2. Doubt in the number of rakaat done. When in doubt, take the minimum number of rakaat
  3. Doing forbidden act that nullifies the prayer out of forgetfulness e.g. accidentally added another rakaat
  4. Doing acts of prayer that is not supposed to be done e.g. read al-Fatihah during tashahhud




2.4 Times Wherein Prayer is Unlawful


2.5 Congregational Prayer



2.6 Travellers


2.6.1 Shortening


Travellers are given the privilege to shorten and combine their prayers. Shortening of the prayers is called qasar and and combining two prayers is called jama'.

Qasar prayers

Condition for validity of qasar prayers

  1. The obligation to perform the prayer is whilst travelling and the prayer is performed whilst travelling
  2. The traveller must be out-of-town of origin
  3. The traveller do not intend to stay for more than 4 days excluding the day of arrival
  4. The traveller is not praying behind someone who is a resident


2.6.2 Combining
 Jama' prayer

There are two types of jama' prayers

  1. Jama' taqdim (early combine). Performing both prayers in the first prayer period
  2. Jama' ta'khir (late combine). Performing both prayers in the second prayer period

Prayers that can be combined

  1. Zuhr and Asr
  2. Maghrib and Isha'

Conditions for jama' taqdim

  1. Done in sequence of the prayer i.e. zuhr before asr, maghrib before isha'
  2. Must make intention to combine the second prayer during the first prayer
  3. Second prayer must be done immediately after the first prayer. Brief delay of no more than the duration of 2 rakaat is permissible
  4. Second prayer is done whilst still travelling

Conditions for jama' ta'khir

  1. Making intention to delay the first prayer during the first prayer period e.g. intention to delay zuhr prayer is done during zuhr period
  2. Both prayers must still be while travelling
  3. May start with first or second prayer 

 Conditions for allowable travelling

  1. The distance must be at least 5o miles (81km)
  2. Aware of the intended destination
  3. Reason for travel is not for vice (sinful acts)


2.7 Friday Prayer


2.7.1 Conditions Obligating the Friday Prayer


Conditions for Friday prayer to be obligatory

  1. Muslim
  2. Baligh (reached the age of puberty)
  3. Sane
  4. Freedom. Slaves do not have the obligation
  5. Male
  6. Healthy (able to attend Friday prayer)
  7. Resident at the place of Friday prayer



2.7.2 Conditions for Performance


Conditions for the validity of Friday prayer

  1. Held in town or village (residential area)
  2. Minimum of 40 people
  3. Held during the period of zuhr
  4. To be held at one place in a locallity


2.7.3 Obligatory Elements


Mandatory integrals of Friday prayer

  1. Two khutbahs
    • Khatib (the one doing the khutbah) standing up if he is able to. The two khutbahs must be separated by sitting down
    • Must be done prior to prayer
    • Khatib must be in the state of purity i.e. free from major and minor hadath
    • The mandatory integrals (rukun) of khutbah must be in Arabic
    • The mandatory integrals, firstand second khutbah must be done sequentially without any excessive time gap
    • The mandatory integrals are heard by the congregation
  2. Two rakaat of prayers in congregation
    • A latecomer who joins the prayer after the imam has done the bowing in the second rakaat is considered to have missed the Friday prayerand must complete the prayer as zuhr prayer


Mandatory integrals (rukun) of khutbah

  1. Praise to Allah ta'ala
  2. Salawat on the Prophet pbuh
  3. Remind the congregation to be taqwa to Allah
  4. Reciting a verse of the Quran in either the first or second khutbah. The verse must be meaningful
  5. Making du'a (supplication) for the believers in the second khutbah



2.7.4 Lesser Recommended Actions





2.8 The Two Eids

 Eid prayers are sunnah muakkadah. It is done between sunrise and noon.

How to pray

  • The prayer is 2 rakaat.
  • Start with intention and takbiratul ihram الله أكبر and then recite du'a iftitah.
  • Then do 7 takbirs الله أكبر, raising both hands at shoulder level. Between the 7 takbirs recite  سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَلَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَاَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ  
  • Then recite أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم and recite al-Fatihah and a surah or a few verses of the Quran
  • During the standing of the second rakaat do the takbir 5 times. Between the 5 takbirs recite سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَلَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَاَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ 
  • End with salam

Eid khutbah

  1. Done after the eid prayer
  2. The mandatory integrals (rukun) are the same as that of khutbah for Friday prayer
  3. It is recommended to start the first khutbah with 9 takbirs and the second khutbah with 7 takbirs

Eid takbir

اللهُ أكْبَرُ, اللهُ أكْبَرُ, اللهُ أكْبَرُ

 لا إِلهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ واللهُ أكْبَرُ

 اللهُ أكْبَرُ وَِللهِ الحَمْدُ


اللهُ اكبَر كَبيْرًا والحَمدُ للهِ كثِيرًا 

وَسُبحَانَ اللهِ بُكرَةً واَصِيلا

لااله اِلااللهُ ولانعْبدُ الاإيّاه مُخلِصِينَ لَه الدّ يْن وَلَو كَرِهَ الكَا فِرُون

 لاالهَ اِلا اللهَ وَحدَه, صَدَق ُوَعْدَه, وَنَصَرَ عبْدَه, وَأعَزّجُندَهُ وَهَزَمَ الاحْزَابَ وَاحْدَه

 لاالهَ اِلاالله وَاللهُ اَكبر

  اللهُ اكبَرُ وَِللهِ الحَمْد




2.9 The Eclipse Prayer


2.10 The Drought Prayer


2.11 Prayer During Peril


2.12 Clothes


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